The 1965 war marks 55 years. If we rely on textbooks, then Pakistan has clearly won the 65th war out of the four major wars that Pakistan fought with India (1948 Kashmir War, 1965, 1971, 1999). On this occasion, September 6 has been celebrated as Pakistan Defense Day for the last four years.According to the school curriculum, India invaded Pakistan on September 6 in the dark of night. But why? Did India suddenly have a stroke or was there a specific reason for the attack? Children are not told anything about it. Nor is it explained why it is called a successful war.
According to US Library of Congress records, 3,000 Indian and 3,800 Pakistani soldiers were killed in the 17-day war.
Of the four major wars between Pakistan and India, about three were fought under a photocopy strategy.
Even in the Kashmir War of 1947 and 1948, tribal lashkars and plainclothes soldiers were unannouncedly admitted into the state to liberate Kashmir. This was probably the only time that Pakistan could have achieved its goals if it had worked at planned speed, but the whole game was in the hands of a few politicians and officials and when the situation got out of control, the state of Pakistan formally joined the war. Forced to be a party. By then, India had consolidated its military position on the front.
The failed strategy of forty-eight was also tried in sixty-five.
On July 28, under Operation Gibraltar, about 4,000 civilians were recruited into Indian-administered Kashmir. The presumption was that the Kashmiri people would rise up against the Indian occupation as soon as they saw them.
When the insurgency spreads, the Pakistan Army will cross the Jammu Working Boundary under Operation Grand Slam, capture the town of Akhnoor, cut off the land route between India and Jammu and paralyze the five divisions in the state. Thus, Pakistan as a powerful party will be in a position to resolve the Kashmir issue voluntarily.
The strategy, presented to President Ayub Khan and Commander-in-Chief General Musa by the Kashmir Cell, included Foreign Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, Foreign Secretary Aziz Ahmed, Major General Gul Hassan, Major General Akhtar Hussain Malik and senior intelligence officials.
The strategists were so sure of their success that they did not even think about Plan B in case of failure. That is why the top leadership of the Air Force and Navy was not taken into confidence. Even Lahore Garrison Commander Major General Sarfraz Khan and West Pakistan Governor Amir Muhammad Khan Kalabagh were kept in the dark. Even the active separatist leadership in Indian-administered Kashmir did not know what was going on in Rawalpindi across the border. (This is the third time this strategy has been used in Kargil in 34 years.)
Operation Gibraltar was based on the assumption that since the operation would be across the Kashmir Ceasefire Line and the Jammu Working Boundary, India would not be foolish to cross the rest of the international border and brand itself as an aggressor. India will also think that if it crosses the international border, China can take the initiative in Ladakh to ease the pressure on Pakistan and just three years ago (1962) China has taught India a good lesson.
But those who say that it is up to you to fight. But then the battle decides its own course. As a result, 4,000 “civilian Mujahideen” entered Indian-administered Kashmir by July 28 under Operation Gibraltar. Only a handful of them knew Kashmiri or Dogri. Apart from the difference in the value of Indian and Pakistani currencies, they did not even know that there was a metric system of measurement. Like Pakistan, the walk doesn’t work.
So ordinary Kashmiris informed the local administration about these strangers. The state machinery came into action and most of the Mujahideen who had crossed the working boundary by August 16 were taken into custody.
After the failure of Operation Gibraltar, the rest of the project should have been thwarted. But then India started retaliating and occupied the main passage of Dara Haji Pir on 24th August which put Pakistan-administered Kashmir in direct danger. So Pakistan launched Operation Grand Slam on August 31 to ease the pressure.
The aim was to cut off Indian supplies by capturing Akhnoor in the Jammu region. But on September 2, the command of the operation was handed over from Major General Akhtar Hussain Malik to Major General Yahya Khan. In the meantime, if Pakistan’s advance was stopped, in the next 24 hours, India strengthened its military position on this front and also blocked the way for Operation Grand Slam.
The Pakistani High Command assumed that now that our advance had stopped, India would refrain from taking further action on the issue. According to Altaf Gohar, neither General Musa nor Ayub Khan expected India to cross the international border.
This belief was so strong that when India crossed the international border near Lahore at 5.30 am on September 6, they were confronted by the Border Rangers, as the Lahore garrison was ordered by the Red Alert to deal with any possible emergency. Was not found
The first report of unusual military movement of India in Lahore-Sialkot sector was given to GHQ by Pakistan Air Force. And in the meantime, the Fascists launched a series of attacks to stop the advancing Indian forces. Therefore, regular Pakistani military hand in this break
They got a chance to recover and thus Lahore was saved.
Was this really an unexpected development for Pakistan?
On September 4, Pakistani High Commissioner in Delhi Arshad Hussain sent a message to the Foreign Office through the Turkish embassy that India was about to cross the border in the next 48 hours. But Foreign Secretary Aziz Ahmed and Foreign Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto suppressed the message, thinking that Arshad Hussain was getting too upset. Because they have been assured by very responsible international sources that India will not do such nonsense. (To date it is not known who these sources were.)
On September 7, the Chinese leadership issued an ultimatum to India to suspend its adventures immediately. At the same time, there was some movement on the Chinese border with Ladakh. On September 8, the United States announced that it was suspending arms supplies to India and Pakistan to reduce tensions in South Asia. On the same day, Commander-in-Chief General Musa informed the President that the army was facing a shortage of ammunition.
On September 10, former Pakistan Air Force chief Air Marshal Asghar Khan was sent to Beijing with a request for an emergency supply of some additional aircraft and ground weapons, urging China to send the weapons through Indonesia so that Pakistan could receive open Chinese weapons. Don’t face American resentment. The Chinese did the same. Indonesia also sent a consignment of arms to Pakistan. Asghar Khan also visited Iran and Turkey.
In the early days of the war, Pakistan captured the small town of Khemkarna across the border in the Lahore sector. A major attack of the Indian Armored Division was stopped in Sialkot sector on the way to Chonda. These victories were widely reported in the media.
Later, to ease the pressure, Pakistan’s Armed Division tried to move beyond Khemkarna. India breached the Madhopur canal to break its grip. Due to this, the field became a swamp and the attack of the Pakistani Armored Division stopped on 9/11.
According to senior diplomat Sultan Mohammad Khan, the chapter on further Pakistani advance ended as soon as the attack was stopped.
Speaking to reporters on September 15, President Ayub Khan called on US President Johnson to use his influence to bring peace to the region. Therefore, with the efforts of the United States and the Soviet Union, a ceasefire resolution was introduced in the Security Council. In his speech, Pakistani Foreign Minister Bhutto raised the slogan of fighting for a thousand years and then accepted the resolution. On September 22, silence fell on Mahaz.
On January 10, 1966, President Ayub and Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri signed a peace agreement in Tashkent, mediated by the Soviet Union. The Kashmir issue was just a line that the parties listened to each other’s position. The two sides agreed to withdraw their troops by August 5, 1965.
A few hours after the signing of the Tashkent Agreement, Lal Bahadur Shastri’s heart stopped beating at midnight. An official of the Pakistani delegation woke up Foreign Minister Bhutto and said, “Bastard is dead.” Bhutto asked casually, “Which one?”